International practice

Nowadays in the world of economic globalization, the role of scientific research, invention and implementation of new technologies, tools and methods for sustainable economic development is increasing. Technology transfer is one of the main components of economic development.  The level of countries’ participation in this process determines the possibility of their technological progress and competitiveness.

In 2013, the international business school INSEAD and the World Intellectual Property Organization presented an analytical report “Global innovation index 2013”.  This study examined 21 countries that produced 99.4% of the world GDP. In 2013, Ukraine took the 63rd place in the list, but that position is far from a desirable one.

According to the results of 2013, the lead country in terms of innovative features is Switzerland, the top three also includes Sweden and Singapore.

The main feature of average western technology transfer center is a complete innovation chain formation, which allows the implementation of the project from idea to small business with the prospects for growth.

Switzerland has made great efforts to commercialize their scientific and technological potential. The government in 2004-2007 was increasing annually cost of the technology sector on average by 6%. The commercialization of innovative developments issues in Switzerland are not supported by         straight government investment. The leading role in scientific-technological development financing belongs to the private sector. Innovative Technology Transfer is linked with technological cluster. The Swiss Technology Transfer Association, founded in 2003, is the association of technology transfer professionals who are active in the transfer of technology from institutes of public research and education, university hospitals, and other not-for-profit research organizations to the private sector where Swiss universities have special centers, with the focus to commoditize scientific and technological activities results.

The National Technology Transfer Network is composed of a National Technology Transfer Center and six Regional Technology Transfer Centers (RTTCs). The RTTCs are geographically located to provide an equal distribution of services throughout the country. To promote technology transfer, NASA operates a number of user assistance centers whose job is to provide information retrieval services and technical help to industrial and government users. The government does not provide direct financial support to the technology transfer centres. However, at the stage of RTTCs formation (that takes around 5-10 years) national laboratories and universities provide them with substantial financial support, financing directly from their internal resources. As soon as RTTCs start getting revenue from the research and development commercialization, subsidies for their activities are gradually reduced. Thus, income received release universities from direct subsidy assistance of these centers.

In Germany, the functions of technological intermediaries between laboratories and companies are carried out by various industry scientific societies. A leading organizational role belongs to the Fraunhofer community society, which includes 58 research institutes. Their activity is financed by Federal government grants and revenues from performing contract research. Local authorities play a significant role in transfer technology. They contribute to the development of science parks and innovation centres.